Side effects of CBD include nausea, fatigue and irritability. CBD can increase the level in your blood of the blood thinner coumadin, and it can raise levels of certain other medications in your blood by the exact same mechanism that grapefruit juice does. A significant safety concern with CBD is that it is primarily marketed and sold as a supplement, not a medication. Currently, the FDA does not regulate the safety and purity of dietary supplements. So, you cannot know for sure that the product you buy has active ingredients at the dose listed on the label. In addition, the product may contain other (unknown) elements. We also don’t know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition.
CBD has been touted for a wide variety of health issues, but the strongest scientific evidence is for its effectiveness in treating some of the cruelest childhood epilepsy syndromes, such as Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), which typically don’t respond to antiseizure medications. In numerous studies, CBD was able to reduce the number of seizures, and, in some cases, it was able to stop them altogether. Videos of the effects of CBD on these children and their seizures are readily available on the Internet for viewing, and they are quite striking. Recently the FDA approved the first ever cannabis-derived medicine for these conditions, Epidiolex, which contains CBD.
CBD is readily obtainable in most parts of the United States, though its exact legal status is in flux. All 50 states have laws legalizing CBD with varying degrees of restriction, and while the federal government still considers CBD in the same class as marijuana, it doesn’t habitually enforce against it. In December 2015, the FDA eased the regulatory requirements to allow researchers to conduct CBD trials. Currently, many people obtain CBD online without a medical cannabis license. The government’s position on CBD is confusing, and depends in part on whether the CBD comes from hemp or marijuana. The legality of CBD is expected to change, as there is currently bipartisan consensus in Congress to make the hemp crop legal which would, for all intents and purposes, make CBD difficult to prohibit.
Is CBD safe?
Some CBD manufacturers have come under government scrutiny for wild, indefensible claims, such that CBD is a cure-all for cancer, which it is not. We need more research but CBD may be prove to be an option for managing anxiety, insomnia, and chronic pain. Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies we can’t pinpoint effective doses, and because CBD is currently is mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it’s difficult to know exactly what you are getting. If you decide to try CBD, talk with your doctor — if for no other reason than to make sure it won’t affect other medications you are taking.
Cannabidiol (CBD) has been recently covered in the media, and you may have even seen it as an add-in booster to your post-workout smoothie or morning coffee. What exactly is CBD? Why is it suddenly so popular?
CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a "high." According to a report from the World Health Organization, "In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD."
In addition to previously mentioned factors, imbalance in the skin microbiome may also contribute to the pathogenesis of acne. Specifically, Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) overgrowth has been linked to the establishment of acne for over 100 years. 100 Therefore, the known anti-microbial effects of CBD may also prove effective in acne treatment. In an in-vitro study by Jin et al, a hemp seed hexane extract (HSHE) exhibited anti-microbial activity on C. acnes while inducing inflammation, and lipogenesis in sebocytes at the molecular and cellular level. 101 With 20% HSHE treatment, complete inactivation of C. acnes was observed. In this study, the content of CBD in HSHE was not reported; hence, it is difficult to attribute the contribution of CBD alone towards inactivation of C. acnes. Similarly, in a small clinical study involving men with buccal facial acne, a 3% Cannabis seed extract containing cream led to decreased sebum content and erythema. As cannabis seed extract contains minimal CBD content, it limits our understanding of application of CBD for acne and seborrhea therapy. 102 Likewise, hemp essential oil contains many terpenes which were shown to have anti-microbial effects against C. acnes (formerly known as Propionibacterium acnes). 103,104
When it becomes chronic, itch or pruritis can severely affect one’s quality of life. The pathogenesis of pruritis is well researched and is described comprehensively in various recent review articles. 64–66 Though most of the ECS research indicates that the itch response is primarily modulated through CB1 receptors in the CNS, 67–69 some reports argue the involvement of peripheral CB1 receptors could also be a potent contributor to itch. 70,71 The available data thus far for the involvement of peripheral CB2 receptors are conflicting and more research is needed to conclusively determine its role in pruritis. 72,73 It has also been shown that all ionotropic cannabinoid responsive receptors (e.g., TRPV1−4, TRPA1 and TRPM8) play a vital role in the complex cutaneous communication between keratinocytes, immune (Mast) cells and the sensory nerves which leads to an itch sensation. 74–78 Thus, inhibiting the activity of such ionotropic channels by selective PCBs may be helpful in alleviating pruritis.
32. Lodzki M, Godin B, Rakou L, Mechoulam R, Gallily R, Touitou E. Cannabidiol—transdermal delivery and anti-inflammatory effect in a murine model. J Controlled Release. 2003;93(3):377–387.
Figure 3 Chemical Structures of 9 endocannabinoids found in human skin.
78. Xie Z, Hu H. TRP Channels as Drug Targets to Relieve Itch. Pharmaceuticals. 2018;11:4.
The legal status of CBD in the United States is complex. Currently, hemp and hemp-derived products are permitted under the Farm Bill , as long as their tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content is less than 0.3%. This is the cannabinoid that people associate with the sensation of feeling “high.”
It is also important for people to speak with a healthcare professional before using a CBD oil or tincture. A doctor can help ensure a person is safe to use the product, and that these products will not interact with any current medications.
However, there is still some confusion over the specifics. If in doubt, people may wish to check the laws within each state.
The FDA warn that CBD products may result in:
People can also apply CBD oil directly to their skin , but they should not try this with tinctures, as it will not be as effective and may irritate the skin. Individuals may also wish to attempt a patch test before applying CBD oil to check for any allergic reactions to the substance.
Additionally, people may also consider:
The main difference between the two is the method of extracting CBD. For oil, manufacturers use carbon dioxide, but for tinctures, they utilize alcohol.