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heat oxidizes antioxidants in cbd isolate

To shift to people, researchers found that people with anxiety and depression have higher markers for ROS:

That’s the first clue on the tie between inflammation and anxiety.

Our findings provide evidence that H2O2, an oxidizing component, caused high-anxiety-related behavior associated with hyperactivity in mice.

CBD’s effect:

Lots of interesting research here.

Female mice showed more severe results from the depletion:

Chadwick agrees, noting that the main culprit is solubility. Key is keeping the CBD soluble in the beverage so it doesn’t settle out as sediment, he explains. “Further, the CBD must be completely soluble or opacity will result, making the beverage less attractive to the consumer. And there’s always a concern for CBD to influence the color, taste, and texture of the beverage.”

The system is a self-emulsifying drug-delivery formulation technology, or SEDDS, developed by Vesifact AG (Baar, Switzerland), and Lopez notes that peer-reviewed and published research as well as proof-of-concept pilot tests show that it increases oral bioavailability of lipophilic molecules like CBD.

But prudence remains in order, warns David Chadwick, CEO, Leading Edge Pharms (Henderson, NV), for the same body of research responsible for the hope also hints that “while CBD is generally well tolerated and considered safe, it may cause adverse reactions in some people.” Because CBD can also interact with some medications, he advises consumers to speak with their physicians before including CBD-containing foods, drinks, or supplements in their routines.

Indeed, heat treatments as mild as baking can destabilize CBD, compromising its bioavailability and subsequent therapeutic benefits, Chadwick says. “And keeping a food or drink in direct sunlight may cause issues like degradation of potency, color change, taste influences, and more.”

No matter the delivery vehicle or ingredient technology, how CBD is extracted invariably influences how it behaves.

The well-established fact that THC derivatives are metabolized by means of hydroxylation at C11 prompted Lemberger et al. [36] to investigate 11-hydroxy-Δ 9 -THC and Watanabe et al. [37] to study the psychotropic effects of 11-hydroxy-Δ 8 -THC. Both studies revealed that these substances show even more enhanced effects than their respective non-hydroxylated forms when administrated to humans. The same effect was also found for 11-oxo-Δ 8 -THC [37]. In another study by Järbe et al. [38], two stereoisomers of 7-hydroxy-HHC showed psychotropic effects on rats and pigeons. According to Watanabe et al. [39], 8-hydroxy-iso-HHC (9 mg/kg i.v.) produced a significant hypothermia in mice at 15 to 90 min after administration, while 9α-hydroxy-HHC failed to induce this effect. Both caused a significantly prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping (1.8 to 8 times). In summary, both hydroxy-HHCs showed THC-like effects in mice but they were less active than Δ 9 -THC [39].

Similar to THC- and HHC-type cannabinoids, the acid form (either methylated or not) of CBD—which is most likely also a product formed during the metabolism of CBD—was found to show some effects on, e.g., cancer and hyperalgesia [48,49], neither of which, though, may be termed psychotropic. Similarly, CBD monomethyl ether (CBD-ME) was found to lack psychotropic activity in a study conducted on rats and pigeons [38].

3.1. Psychotropicity of Cannabinoids

Chemical structures of (a) hexahydrocannabinol (HHC), (b) cannabigerol (CBG) and (c) cannabichromene (CBC).

A comprehensive risk assessment of CBD products, however, not only requires the monitoring of an in vivo formation of Δ 9 -THC (or other psychotropic cannabinoids) but also the pre-consumption reactions occurring in the product itself. The strongest and the most clinically relevant piece of evidence determined in this review in favor of CBD’s conversion to psychotropic metabolites is during improper storage. For example, CBD may cyclize to Δ 9 -THC under storage conditions, even though both compounds are further degraded to CBN, which in turn may exhibit psychotropic effects itself. Hence, there is a special need for manufacturers to include shelf-life studies dedicated to the long-term stability of CBD in the finished products, considering the formation of psychotropic compounds by the degradation of CBD. Accordingly, an interesting possibility would also be testing for compounds or conditions that help to prevent or slow down CBD degradation, comparable to antioxidants used to protect lipid compounds in food from oxidation.

By the time of their first detection, cannabinoids were mainly analyzed by color reactions such as the Duquénois–Negm test and the Beam test as summarized by Vollner et al. [57]. Some of these tests were highly sensitive and enabled the differentiation between various cannabinoids [57]. Besides that, thin layer chromatography (TLC), photometric and spectroscopic methods were reported as well [57]. The development of gas chromatography (GC) by Martin and Synge in the early 1950s and its immediate success in analytical chemistry [58] soon also reached the field of cannabis research when Farmillo and Davis developed the first GC method to separate a number of different cannabinoids in 1960 [59,60]. Similar to GC, the invention and rise of the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique in the late 1960s [61] quite immediately paved its way to the field of cannabis research. First reports on the use of HPLC to detect and quantify several cannabinoids can be ascribed to the working group of R.N. Smith, according to a series of publications starting in 1975 [62,63,64]. Both GC and HPLC are still used as major tools in the analysis of cannabinoids nowadays, yet in more sophisticated versions. Countless reports on MS and MS/MS hyphenation techniques as well as two dimensional approaches (e.g., GC × GC) were reported and reviewed carefully [65,66].