4.4 Data and approach To evaluate the impact of double and triple certification on the livelihoods of smallholder coffee farmers that are members of local cooperatives, household survey data was collected from a random sample of coffee farmers in southern Ethiopia through face-to-face interviews. The survey was conducted from June 2010 to January 2011 in five districts (Dale, Wonsho, Shebdino, AletaWondo, and AletaChuko) of the Sidama Zone, one of the major coffee growing zones in the Southern region of the country. The study area is located 270 km south from the capital, Addis Ababa. To select our sample, we followed a multi-stage random sampling method. Out of the 45 primary coffee cooperatives composing Sidama Farmers’ Cooperative Union36, we selected ten co-ops, based on performance indicators. The members’ sample was drawn randomly from the registration lists of the selected primary cooperatives. The total survey sample consists of 700 co-op member smallholder coffee farmer households. The sample was designed to include three different groups of respondents: (1) smallholder coffee farmers certified only by Fair Trade (FT) (single certified); (2) coffee farmers certified under FT/organic (double certified); and (3) coffee farmers certified under FT/organic/Utz (triple certified). Household-level data was collected through an identical questionnaire for farmers under single, double, and triple certification regimes. We first present the descriptive statistics of our sample to give an overall picture of the surveyed smallholder coffee farmers that belong to different certification groups. We selected 10 primary coffee marketing cooperatives out of 45 coffee cooperatives under the Sidama Union that were (1) single certified (Fura, DebonaWiecho, Megara and Ganie Cooperatives), (2) double certified (Fero, Telamo, HalonaGelma, and Gerbicho Lela Cooperatives) and (3) triple certified (Gedibonasheicha and Bokasso Cooperatives). We subsequently divided the smallholder cooperative member coffee farmers into three groups: (1) only FT certified (single certified), (2) FT/organic certified (double certified), and (3) FT/organic/Utz certified (triple certified). In this study FT certified (single) coffee farmer households are used as a control group. Table 4.1 provides information on the number of cases and sample sizes per certification type. The survey format covered a large number of issues, such as household characteristics, production and marketing of coffee, social capital, farmers’ perception of the cooperative performance, types of marketing channels, savings and credit, degree of participation in coffee marketing cooperatives and the status of various certification schemes. In order to complement quantitative data with qualitative information, indepth interviews were also held with various relevant cooperative stakeholders at district, zonal, regional, and federal levels, as well as with coffee farmers in the field. Additional expert interviews were conducted with staff members of the Sidama Union and co-op experts in the capital city of Addis Ababa. 36
Chapter 2 – The impact of Utz certification on smallholder farmers in Uganda
Coffee certification in East Africa Impact on farms, families and cooperatives
Coffee Certification in East Africa: Impact on Farms .
Figure 1.1. Price ratio between coffee and other crops in Kenya (index at t0 = 100).
Income Coffee income (reported prices) Income from other crops Income from livestock Share of income from coffee Share of income from coffee versus cattle Perceptions and organisation Number of organisations Economic situation versus 5 years ago (1-3) Economic situation versus 5 years later (1-3) Satisfaction technical assistance (1-5) Satisfaction trade assistance (1-5) Identification index Force index Gender and risk Gender index male Gender index female Risk
Table 1.3. Stylised results from coffee impact studies. Outcome
on Dutch colonialism by Multatuli (a pseudonym of Eduard Douwes Dekker).
The Advantages of Autologus Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AdMSCs) over the Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Application for Degenerative Elbow Joint Disease Treatment in Dogs Twelve Cases MARYCZ K, BASINSKA K, MIESZEK A, NICPOŃ J, TOKER NY (DOI: 10.9775/kvfd.2013.10105)
Effect of Maturity Stages on Potential Nutritive Value, Methane Production and Condensed Tannin Content of Sanguisorba minor Hay KAPLAN M, KAMALAK A, KASRA AA, GÜVEN İ (DOI: 10.9775/kvfd.2013.10383)
Prof.Dr. Kemal AK Prof.Dr. Harun AKSU Prof.Dr. Belma ALABAY Prof.Dr. Mustafa ALİŞARLI Prof.Dr. Feray ALKAN Prof.Dr. Çiğdem ALTINSAAT Prof.Dr. Kemal ALTUNATMAZ Prof.Dr. Mustafa ARICAN Prof.Dr. Mustafa ATASEVER Prof.Dr. Sırrı AVKİ Prof.Dr. Les BAILLIE Prof.Dr. Metin BAYRAKTAR Prof.Dr. Burhan ÇETİNKAYA Prof.Dr. İbrahim DEMİRKAN Prof.Dr. Nazir DUMANLI Prof.Dr. Hasan Hüseyin DÖNMEZ Prof.Dr. Emrullah EKEN Prof.Dr. Hüdaverdi ERER Prof.Dr. Ayhan FİLAZİ Prof.Dr. Aytekin GÜNLÜ Prof.Dr. Ekrem GÜREL Prof.Dr. Tolga GÜVENÇ Prof.Dr. Armağan HAYIRLI Prof.Dr. Ali İŞMEN Prof.Dr. Hakkı İZGÜR Prof.Dr. Zafer KARAER Prof.Dr. Arif KURTDEDE Prof.Dr. Erdoğan KÜÇÜKÖNER Prof.Dr. Mehmet MADEN Prof.Dr. Kamil ÖCAL Prof.Dr. Metin PETEK Prof.Dr. Sevim ROLLAS Prof.Dr. Berrin SALMANOĞLU Prof.Dr. Sabine SCHÄFER-SOMI Prof.Dr. Nesrin SULU Prof.Dr. Ayşe TOPAL Prof.Dr. Ş. Doğan TUNCER Prof.Dr. Cevdet UĞUZ Prof.Dr. Zafer ULUTAŞ Prof.Dr. Rıfat VURAL Prof.Dr. Halis YERLİKAYA
This journal is also indexed and abstracted in:
This journal is indexed and abstracted by Thomson Reuters Services beginning with Volume 13 (1) 2007 in the followings: