A 2015 study published in the journal Neurotherapeutics analyzed the existing preclinical studies on the use of CBD for anxiety and found that CBD was effective for a number of anxiety conditions including:
Some other concerns to consider before taking CBD:
Many experts remain optimistic that CBD may prove useful for a range of mental health conditions. “CBD has shown therapeutic efficacy in a range of animal models of anxiety and stress, reducing both behavioral and physiological (e.g., heart rate) measures of stress and anxiety,” suggested Nora D. Volkow, the Director of the National Institute of Drug Abuse in testimony presented to the Senate Caucus on International Narcotics Control.
It is also important to note that while hemp-derived CBD that contains less than 0.3% THC is legal by federal law, it is still illegal in some states. You should always check your state laws before purchasing a CBD product.
One study conducted with adults who had symptoms of anxiety and poor sleep found that 65% experienced improvements in sleep quality scores after a month of taking an average of 25mg of CBD daily, although those scores fluctuated over time. Further research is needed to determine the possible effects of CBD on sleep.
Please note that, because of the way the liver works, CBD may affect the clearance of other drugs you are taking. As always, it’s a good idea to check with your doctor before starting any new herbal supports, especially if you are taking prescription medications.
Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is a natural plant-based oil that contains phyto (plant) chemicals called cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are “feel good” molecules naturally made by the body when we are feeling relaxed and secure or involved in something that makes us happy, like hugging someone we care about or sitting down to a meal we are looking forward to. Cannabinoids are also released when we sleep well and exercise. Cannabinoids bind to little docking stations in our bodies called cannabinoid receptors that help stimulate those feel-good responses. Discovered in 1992, the main cannabinoid molecule is called anandamide, which is translated from the Sanskrit as “bliss molecule.”
Is CBD safe?
Since CBD has practically no THC, there is, in theory, little to no chance it will create a positive drug urine test. And, the follow-up confirmatory test for marijuana is too specific to come up positive from CBD. Having said this, it is important to purchase CBD from nutraceutical companies who manufacture it from varieties of hemp containing the lowest THC.
Can CBD oil cause a positive result in a drug test?
Cannabis sativa, a species of cannabis plant, is well known to humankind, with its earliest use in ancient Chinese culture dating as far back as 2700 B.C. (Zuardi, 2006). The use of medical cannabis in China was reported in the world’s oldest pharmacopoeia (Martin et al., 1999). However, interest in the role of cannabis flourished in the late twentieth century after the recognition of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain (Zuardi, 2006; Martin et al., 1999). More recently, research has centered on the description and cloning of specific receptors and the therapeutic effects of medical cannabis, and different cannabinoids in the cannabis plant have gained interest (Martin et al., 1999). Recent studies have focused on the therapeutic role of medical cannabis in different disorders. As a result, there is a growing need to summarize and review the evidence for its therapeutic and adverse effects as an aid to public health policy development, and to provide direction and impetus to pharmaceutical research in this field.
In a comparison of CBD with amisulpride, Leweke and colleagues reported similar improvements in patients taking CBD 800 mg/day and those taking amisulpride (Leweke et al., 2012). This study also indicated an increase in intrinsic anandamide signaling, an effect that explained the antipsychotic properties of CBD (Leweke et al., 2012). Moreover, CBD treatment was associated with a lower risk of extrapyramidal symptoms, less weight gain, and a lower increase in prolactin, which is a predictor of galactorrhea and sexual dysfunction (Leweke et al., 2012). An open-label study of CBD to treat psychosis in Parkinson’s disease also suggested promising results at a dose of 400 mg daily; however, there was a strong risk of bias because of inadequate blinding of participants, personnel and outcome assessors (Zuardi et al., 2009).
The remaining studies were either case series or case reports; all found positive outcomes in withdrawal and cannabis-dependence symptoms (Crippa et al., 2013; Trigo et al., 2016b; Shannon & Opila-Lehman, 2015). Mean age in the case series was 35 years, although the first participant was 19 years old and the second was 27 years old. The case series used self-titrated nabiximols at a dose of 77.5–113.4 mg THC and 71.5–105.0 mg CBD (Trigo et al., 2016b). Moreover, all participants reported a significant reduction in craving (Crippa et al., 2013; Trigo et al., 2016b; Shannon & Opila-Lehman, 2015), quicker relief (Crippa et al., 2013), lower anxiety, and an improved sleep schedule (Shannon & Opila-Lehman, 2015). However, the case series reported increased craving scores during the first 2 weeks with a subsequent reduction in craving at week 9. CBD was well-tolerated in this patient population, except for decreased appetite reported in one study (Trigo et al., 2016b). For patients receiving nabiximols or CBD, treatment should be augmented with psychotherapeutic modalities considering the positive evidence for an effect on cravings.
Eight electronic databases were searched on October 28th, 2018: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, POPLINE, New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report, PsycINFO, Psycarticles, and CINAHL. The following search strategy was used in all cases: (CBD OR Cannabi* OR nabiximols) AND (psychiat* OR Depress* OR Anxiety OR Psycho* OR schizo* OR Bipolar OR Substance OR ADHD OR Attention OR Autism) AND (treatment). The manual search of references of included studies was performed by four independent reviewers.
Nabiximols produced improvements in patients with Tourette syndrome at a much lower dose than what was used for cannabis-related disorders (Trainor et al., 2016; Pichler et al., 2019). These case reports tested two oromucosal nabiximols sprays used twice a day (total dose 10.8 mg Δ9-THC and 10 mg CBD per day) (Trainor et al., 2016), and the second also tested cannabis tincture (34 drops three times a day (Pichler et al., 2019). Both case reports found improvements in tic frequency (Trainor et al., 2016; Pichler et al., 2019), severity (Trainor et al., 2016; Pichler et al., 2019), quality of life, and social activity (Trainor et al., 2016). These treatments regimens were used for 4 weeks with the oromucosal spray form (Trainor et al., 2016) and 8 weeks for cannabis tincture (Pichler et al., 2019). The therapeutic benefits can be attributed to the anxiolytic and sleep-inducing properties of CBD (Trainor et al., 2016). It is difficult to ascertain whether these improvements were due to due to CBD, Δ9-THC, additive, or synergetic effects. The anxiolytic properties of CBD explain the attenuation of anxiety associated with the onset of tics, and the improvement in tics with a combination of Δ9-THC and CBD (Trainor et al., 2016; Pichler et al., 2019).