Endocannabinoids on the other hand encourage the sparing and storage of energy, in part by reducing thyroid hormones (1) .
Cannabinoid receptor 1 is also found on most other glands and organs, so can control hormonal balance directly as well.
Levels of hormones naturally fluctuate depending on whether it’s day or night, and what stage of life a person has reached, eg adolescence, pregnancy or menopause.
Thyroid hormones TSH, T4 and T3 are all designed to rev up cellular metabolism, helping us mobilise energy to use it.
Aromatase inhibitors are used to reduce estrogen levels in cases of breast cancer and post menopause (6) .
Marijuana is commonly used and its use by women is rising. Women have been found to be more susceptible to abuse of cannabinoids and the development of dependence, and experience more severe withdrawal symptoms and relapse more often than do men. As well, when women use cannabinoids, they are more impacted, with altered functioning on tasks. In adolescents, females are more likely to be adversely affected than are male adolescents by cannabinoids. Importantly, it is now accepted that estradiol is the hormone that impacts this important sexual dimorphic effect of cannabinoids.
Here is a summary of what is currently known about the interrelationship of endocannabinoids and estrogen. Central CB1 receptor expression is modulated by estradiol and estradiol also increases anandamide synthesis while decreasing FAAH activity. FAAH is the principle enzyme which degrades the endocannabinoid anandamide. Reductions in this degrading enzyme would, of course, increase the amount of the cannabinoid present. The higher amount of the endocannabinoid present then decreases GnRH release, and this results in less FSH and LH release. The consequence of these gonadotropin decreases is a decrease in the release of estrogen from the ovaries. Estradiol also down-regulates FAAH activity peripherally in both the uterus and in immune cells.
The endocannabinoid system and estrogens have both direct and indirect interactions. The endocannabinoid system impacts the release of estrogens through the central down-regulation of LH and GnRH. When THC is given, there is a decrease in serum LH, and the pulsatile nature of LH is decreased. When GnRH was given to female rats, the effects of THC were reversed. This is suggestive that as the pituitary gland remains sensitive to stimulation, the impact of cannabinoids is through its effects on central neurotransmission, suppressing LH release. The suppression of LH release by THC has been demonstrated in monkeys and rats. It is complex and variable by brain region and even by synapses, but changes to the function of estrogen do influence central endocannabinoid signaling. There is clearly a complex interrelationship between endocannabinoid activity and estradiol levels. It certainly appears that the use of an exogenous cannabinoid could adversely impact the hormonal cycling and fertility of females.
The CB1 receptors are in the presynaptic neurons on the axon terminals. The endocannabinoids themselves are synthesized and released on demand by the postsynaptic neurons. When the receptors are bonded with the ligand endocannabinoids, the release of additional neurotransmitters by the presynaptic cell is blocked, thereby allowing regulation of neurotransmission of incoming signals. FAAH, fatty acid amide hydrolase, is an enzyme which breakdowns anandamide and monoacylglycerol lipase breakdowns 2- AG, controlling quantities. FAAH is under the control of estradiol.
Research is revealing that there exists a bidirectional relationship between the endocannabinoid system and gonadal hormones. If changes to the HPG axis occur, there can be an impact on the functioning of the endocannabinoid system. And the endocannabinoid system is involved in many functions, as mentioned, including sexual behavior, which are of course regulated by gonadal hormones. Clearly there is a complex, bidirectional interaction between the two systems.
Estrogens are the collective name for a whole group of related hormones. Let’s get acquainted with three prominent representatives:
It is basically the weaker version of estrogen, emerging during menopause when the estradiol level begins to decline.
Research shows that CBD can replace prescription hormone drugs, which have many adverse side effects. It is CBD that can be used to replace them, thus, avoiding hormonal addiction.
Anastasiia Myronenko is a Medical Physicist actively practicing in one of the leading cancer centers in Kyiv, Ukraine. She received her master’s degree in Medical Physics at Karazin Kharkiv National University and completed Biological Physics internship at GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, Germany. Anastasiia Myronenko specializes in radiation therapy and is a fellow of Ukrainian Association of Medical Physicists.
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