Marijuana use may be a driving factor in the rise of head and neck cancer cases, according to a new study. Common warts are small, coarse skin growths often found on fingers or hands. CBD may help with the symptoms or effects of some types of warts. Learn more. By The Fresh Toast's Kate-Madonna Hindes, provided exclusively to Benzinga Cannabis.
Daily Cannabis Use Can Drive HPV-Related Tumor Growth, Study Finds
Marijuana use may be a driving factor in the rise of head and neck cancer cases, according to a new study.
Published in Clinical Cancer Research, the research found that tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can activate a molecular mechanism in the body that accelerates tumor growth in patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive skin cancers.
The big (TH)C
To find their results, the research group from the University of California San Diego School of Medicine investigated how THC in the bloodstream affected the p38 MAPK pathway, a molecular mechanism that controls programmed cell death.
After injecting cannabinoids into animal cells, human cells, and mice, the researchers found that THC does activate p38 MAPK, which then inhibits cell death and allows any tumors to progress.
The team then checked the blood plasma levels of 32 people with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). And like the cell lines, the blood samples showed p38 MAPK activation and loss of cell death in tumors from patients with THC in their blood.
“We now have convincing scientific evidence that daily marijuana use can drive tumor growth in HPV-related head and neck cancer,” Joseph A Califano III, the paper’s senior author, said in a statement.
HNSCC is the sixth most common cancer in the world, and approximately 30 percent of those living with the condition display an HPV infection. Coupled with lagging HPV vaccination rates, Califano and his colleagues are concerned that rising rates of cannabis use could boost the disease’s prevalence.
“HPV-related head and neck cancer is one of the fastest growing cancers in the United States,” he wrote in a press statement. “While at the same time, exposure to marijuana is accelerating. This is a huge public health problem.”
Cannabis and cancer
Previous studies have suggested that HPV status may be a modifier to any cannabis- HNSCC association. In a 2008 paper, researchers found an increased risk of head and neck cancer for cannabis-consuming HPV-16–positive patients, but found no association between the drug and the disease for HPV-16–negative patients.
Lung cancers, on the other hand, appear to have a null association with cannabis use, despite the presence of carcinogens in cannabis smoke. A popular explanation for this net inertia is that the tumor-suppressant effects of THC and other cannabinoids actually counteract any carcinogenic activity.
However, in the case of head and neck cancer in HPV-positive patients, these anti-tumor properties don’t appear to be having a benefit.
“Marijuana and other cannabis products are often considered benign,” Califano continued, “but it is important to note that all drugs that have benefits can also have drawbacks. This is a cautionary tale.”
Califano and his colleagues now suggest that THC’s cancer-fighting properties need additional critical evaluation.
“Past studies showing anticancer effects of THC and other cannabinoids often used levels of THC higher than those found with recreational use, but doses used recreationally clearly activate a cancer-causing pathway,” he added.
Speaking to Analytical Cannabis in September last year, cannabis-cancer researcher Dr David Meiri explained the importance of dosage when discussing cannabinoids’ anti-tumor properties. “When you have defect in [a] pathway, which sometimes happens in cancer, the cannabis can change things that will lead the cells to die,” he said.
“[But] the dosing is [also] very, very important,” he added. “You want to find the ratio that will kill the cancer, but not the normal cells. It’s a matter of ratio and the amounts, and what caused the cancer, and why it’s different from the normal.”
In their follow-up research, Califano and his team plan to test whether another famous cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), affects cell growth in the same way as THC.
Science Writer & Editor
Leo joined Analytical Cannabis in 2019. From research to regulations and analysis to agriculture, his writing covers all the need-to-know news for the cannabis industry. He holds a bachelor’s degree in biology from Newcastle University and a master’s degree in science communication from the University of Edinburgh.
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CBD for Warts – August 2022
Common warts are small, coarse skin growths that occur most often on fingers or hands. Grainy to the touch, common warts also often feature a pattern of tiny black dots, which are clotted blood vessels.
Common warts are caused by HPV (human papillomavirus). Some strains of HPV are acquired through sexual contact.
However, most forms are spread by casual skin contact or through shared objects, such as towels or washcloths. They can also spread to different parts of the body by nail-biting or shaving.
It can take a wart two to six months to develop after the skin has been exposed to the virus.
An individual’s immune system responds to the HPV virus differently, so not everyone who comes in contact with HPV develops warts.
Common warts are typically harmless and eventually disappear on their own. Still, most people choose to have them removed because they find them bothersome or embarrassing.
People at higher risk of developing common warts include children and young adults, as their bodies may not have built up a robust immunity to the virus.
Also, at risk are individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, or people who have had organ transplants (1 ) .
Why Some People Are Turning to CBD for Warts
No study indicates that CBD directly treats warts. Still, CBD may help those dealing with the symptoms or effects of some types of warts.
CBD for HPV Vaccine Side Effects
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two doses of HPV vaccine for children aged 11 or 12 to protect them against cancers caused by HPV infections (2 ) .
Recent changes to the vaccine recommendations mean preventing cancer is easier now than ever before, said Nancy Messonnier, M.D., director of CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (3 ) .
Meanwhile, researchers have found that the vaccine may also result in adverse effects for some young adults. They also found that CBD hemp oil can help alleviate those side effects.
Results of a small 2017 study published in the Israel Medical Association Journal suggest that CBD can help relieve symptoms and improve life quality in those with adverse effects following HPV vaccination (4 ) .
Researchers found CBD-rich hemp oil to be a promising treatment for severe somatoform and dysautonomic syndrome following HPV vaccination.
Somatic symptom disorder is often characterized by an extreme focus on physical symptoms, such as pain or fatigue, that causes significant emotional distress and problems functioning (5 ) .
Dysautonomia is a disorder that involves the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary actions, like the heart beating and the widening or narrowing of blood vessels (6 ) .
The authors of the study hypothesized that supplementing the endocannabinoid system, a complex signaling network in the body, with plant-derived cannabinoids like CBD, could stimulate the system and bring it back to balance.
Still, the researchers urged for randomized controlled trials to fully characterize the safety profile and efficacy of CBD oil for HPV vaccination side effects.
CBD for Cervical Cancer
Of the over a hundred types of HPV, two types cause 70% of cervical cancers and pre-cancerous cervical lesions, says the World Health Organization (WHO) (7 ) .
Meanwhile, a 2016 study published in BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies showed that CBD rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevented cell growth at a significant rate and induced apoptosis (cell death) in laboratory-grown, cervical cancer cell lines (8 ) .
The results prove promising for individuals who do not want to use medical cannabis that contains THC and may change the way experts have been treating cervical cancer.
CBD for the Immune System
Individuals with a weakened immune system are most at risk of developing warts (9 ) .
Meanwhile, CBD may help boost the immune system. Studies have shown that cannabis is immune-modulating, which means it can bring an over- or under-reacting immune system back into balance (10 ) .
In other studies, CBD was found to play an integral role in managin g autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis , multiple sclerosis (MS) , HIV/AIDS, a nd Parkinson’s disease (11 ) .
Autoimmune diseases are characterized by an immune system overreacting to non-threatening internal events, leading it to attack healthy cells in the body (12 ) .
CBD for Skin Care
Warts manifest as a skin problem, caused by a virus that usually spreads through breaks in the skin, such as a scrape or a hangnail (13 ) .
A study published in the journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences has suggested the existence of a functiona l endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the skin and implicated it in various biological processes that might form the basis for future clinical studies on skin disorders (14 ) .
In the said study, the authors noted that the primary physiological function of the ECS in the skin seemed to be the regulation of the well-balanced proliferation, survival, and tolerance of skin cells.
They said that the disruption of this delicate balance might facilitate the development of multiple skin problems, such as acne, seborrhea (red, itchy rash and white scales), allergic dermatitis, psoriasis (painful, dry, raised, and red skin lesions), and cancer.
CBD also impacts the TRPV-1 and GPR55 receptors (15 ) . Both receptors are found in the skin and play a role in pain signaling and inflammation.
No study indicates that CBD directly treats warts. Still, CBD may help those dealing with the symptoms or effects of some types of warts.
CBD oil from hemp may help with HPV vaccine side effects, destroy cervical cancer cells in the lab , boost the body’s immunity, and remedy common skin conditions caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).
However, CBD may interact with other pharmaceuticals. Moreover, its long-term side effects are still unknown.
Thus, before using CBD for wart symptoms or HPV side effects, or before using CBD as an adjunct therapy, consult with a dermatologist experienced in cannabis use for advice.
Marijuana And HPV: Friend Or Foe?
Often called the common cold of the sexual world, the Centers for Disease Control states that HPV has infected over 79 million individuals worldwide. Both prevalent and highly contagious, HPV tends to thrive on porous skin located in the throat, anal cavity, cervix and tongue, making it extremely difficult to test and eradicate around the world.
Risk factors of HPV are a compromised immune system, smoking and poor diet and sleep. Thought to cause over 70% of cervical cancers, the World Health Organization states that HPV has more than 100 types and has one of the best known defenses: vaccination.
For decades, researchers believed that marijuana played a role in HPV-related cervical cancer. However, a 2010 study, published in the U.S. National Library of Medicine, found that marijuana did not cause cervical cancer.
Understanding HPV’s infectivity
While once thought to only be contracted through sexual conduct, studies in the last two decades have showcased that HPV can live on surfaces. One study, published in the British Medical Journal in 2002 found HPV DNA could live in a clinical environment, without skin-to-skin contact. A more recent and in-depth study, featured in Taylor & Francis Online, found that when comparing the bovine papillomavirus with the human papillomavirus, both showed a remarkable ability to retain a 50% infectivity at room temperature after 3 days.
Additionally, in 2014, Penn State further researched on earlier findings, finding that unless a special method of cleaning instruments (autoclaving) or bleach was present, HPV was persistent on surfaces and was able to be transmitted. While still cited as a “sexually-transmitted infection,” HPV appears to be anything but.
Craig Meyers, a professor of microbiology and immunology at Penn State College of Medicine explained, “Chemical disinfectants used in the hospitals and other healthcare settings have absolutely no effect on killing human papillomavirus… unless bleach or autoclaving is used in the hospital setting, human papillomavirus is not being killed and there is a potential spread of HPV through hospital acquired or instrument or tool infection.”
Photo by Joe Raedle/Staff/Getty Images
THC’s Role with HPV
A recent study published by Joseph A. Califano III, MD, found an interesting juxtaposition between HPV and THC. He shared in a report to UC San Diego Health that he felt since HPV-related head and neck cancers along with marijuana use were both on the rise, there might be a correlation between the two. His father, Joseph A. Califano Jr., is the former Secretary of State and well-known founder and chairman to the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University, who heads an organization speaking out against marijuana.
In the study, Califano III cited that THC turned on the p38 MAPK, (protein that respond to stress or other stimuli) and while the protein was signaled on, HPV-positive head and neck cancer lost apoptosis (a form of cell death.) Meaning, THC seemed to ignite the protein that allowed HPV to continue growing at an alarming rate. Citing the study as a, “cautionary tale,” Califano III is now heading a study to see if CBD has the same effect.
Interestingly, an earlier study directly opposite of Caifano’s findings was published in 2016 by North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa.
Citing the same method of apoptosis, researchers found that CBD could be considered anticarcinogenic for cervical cancer. The data further illustrated that, “cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induced cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.” Could cannabis hurt head and neck cancers while CBD kills cancer cells in the cervix?
Kellie Lease Stecher, MD, a gynecologist in Edina, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minn. believes both studies highlight the importance of ongoing research. “While marijuana use is climbing due to legality, more studies must be done to look at the HPV’s DNA and how each strand is effected by CBD or marijuana,” Stecher explained. “Further studies should examine how HPV expression is altered by marijuana or its components in different tissues; as we don’t have enough data to determine if CBD or THC is helpful or harmful due to conflicting data.”
With an eye to the future and ever-climbing HPV-positive cancer rates, research can’t come soon enough.
Featured image by Getty Images
Original publication: 2020
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