Since plants growing in legal outdoor operations are treated as small trees in an orchard (i.e., they are properly irrigated and fertilized), a plant density of 1 plant per m2 could be used as a reference (this density has been reported for well-cared Cannabis plants growing outdoors [4,5]. At this density well-cared plants can develop large, multi-branched canopies. Using this density, we should expect 4,046 plants per acre. Well-cared Cannabis plants grown outdoors at this density regularly yield 1 to 2 pounds (0.5 – 1kg) of fresh bud per plant [4, 5]. These numbers bring us to a total yield of 2,023 to 4,046 kg of bud per acre. For simplicity let’s settled for 3,000 kg per acre .
Let’s start by trying to establish how many hemp plants (or how much biomass) can be cultivated per surface area. Canadian provinces like Alberta and Manitoba have very compressive programmes for cultivation of industrial hemp. The websites of both programmes offer very detailed numbers of expected yields depending of the crop modality (fiber, seed or mixed) [2, 3]). Unfortunately, none of these numbers really apply to current practices in outdoor hemp operations specifically seeded for production of CBD-rich cultivars.
I am not a farmer. I have never been in a hemp field but I am a plant physiologist and I like to work around Fermi Problems  for fun. I don’t want to prove or disprove any particular figure or rule of thumb, I just want to share with the network a simple exercise hoping to start a conversation. I welcome all comments and corrections from anyone with first hand experience, expertise or reliable sources.
It is difficult to believe how much disinformation, malarkey and plain old Androgenic Bovine Manure (aka Bullshit) we still have around simple facts and figures when it comes to parametrize outdoor cultivation of hemp and potential production of CBD oils and isolates.
The question I would like to answer is: Could a “10,000 kg of CBD isolate per month purchase order” be fulfilled using only outdoor hemp grown in the USA?
So, fulfillment of a single PO for 10,000 kg per month of CBD isolate will require around 10% of the entire production of the US assuming every available acre is dedicated to it. I better put my money in that escrow account before someone else take this opportunity 😊.
Now, before extraction and purification of this biomass could occur the biomass needs to be dried. The Bureau voor Medicinale Cannabis in the Netherlands suggest that saleable material represents about 30 per cent of dried plant weight and about 8 per cent-10 per cent of wet plant weight . As the biomass will not be stored we could assume 80% loss by drying instead of the after mentioned 90%. Hence, we are now down to 600 kg per acre of dry bud ready for extraction. Assuming a 10% CBD content (10% could be seen as an unrealistic high average for wet material but seems to be a good reference for dry material ) we now have 60 kg of CBD available per acre. With a wet dream efficiency of 90% for the extraction and purification process you end with 54 kg of pure CBD isolate per acre.
Amount Per Acre
If you’re harvesting hemp plants for the purposes of extracting CBD oil, you will need to grow only female plants, which are the ones that flower. The flower (or bud) of the hemp plant contains the trichomes with the highest amount of CBD, making it the best and easiest way to extract CBD oil from the plant. On average, you can grow about 1,500 hemp plants per acre if you’re growing for CBD oil.
With hemp grown for industrial purposes, you can grow many more plants per acre—around 400,000 plants. These plants can be male varieties since you don’t need the flower to harvest CBD, and the plants grow much taller, allowing for more volume per acre. Hemp plants grown for the purpose of extracting CBD oil require more space, so you can grow fewer plants per acre.
Answer: On average, one hemp plant can produce approximately one pound of CBD oil.
Hemp plants grown to harvest CBD require different planting techniques than hemp plants that are grown for more industrial or manufacturing purposes.
Amount of End Product
The amount of CBD oil you extract decreases if you’re looking to produce a more refined end product, like CBD isolate (approx. yield 140lbs per acre) or broad-spectrum CBD distillate (approx. yield 160lbs per acre). If you’re just looking to extract crude oil, you’ll extract a larger volume of oil than if you refine it down further.
If you’re looking to begin growing hemp for the purpose of extracting CBD oil, you likely are wondering what the ROI of a single hemp plant is. As you’re starting a business, you need to understand the financial side of your operation in addition to the technical side.
One of the main questions asked is how much CBD oil can be extracted from a single hemp plant, as well as how much CBD oil can be produced from one acre of hemp plants?
Liquid solvent extraction uses solutions such as butane, propane or ethanol to collect the components from the raw CBD biomass. After extraction, these solutions are purged of the solvents, leaving behind the extracted hemp material.
Here we dive into major factors like product type, moisture content, quality and volume with an extensive guide to today’s hemp and CBD market price trends.
Like most commodities, volume is a major factor in determining overall market price. According to Hemp Benchmarks’ January, 2020 report, the price of CBD biomass when purchasing up to 25K pounds is about $1.31 per % CBD per pound. By contrast when volume increases to 100K pounds, 1M pounds, or 1M+ pounds the price subsequently drops to $1.14, $1.01, and In this post –.55 respectively.
Trends Based on THC Content, Volume and Quality
The short answer is yes. According to financial media outlet, Benzinga America is growing exponentially more hemp than the market can feasibly process and consume. This is the number one reason why the cost of hemp has steadily declined in 2019 and has reached an all-time low as of January 2020.
While wholesale prices are dropping across nearly all hemp products–from raw biomass, to flower, to isolates, and distillates–not all hemp products are created equal. Moreover the current drop may ultimately level out as the market stabilizes. As a hemp supplier, processor or consumer, it’s important to understand all of the factors that make up hemp and CBD pricing trends so that you can plan for the future.
Dried CBD flower refers to the bud and trichome portions of the hemp plant, which are removed from the stalks and stems. Dried flower is smokeable and sold alone or in pre-rolled joints. Dried CBD flower commands a higher price point than CBD biomass because it has been cut, trimmed and is ready to sell.
In order to process hemp using CO2 , it must first be pressurized in metal tanks to transform from a gas into a supercritical fluid. From there, the CO2 solution draws the desired components from the plant such as cannabinoids, terpenes or flavonoids. The CO2 solution is later evaporated leaving a concentrated oil, shatter or budder behind.